Center for Open Education the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation
Names of Russia: great scientists
Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov is one of the remarkable representatives of Russian culture and science. Many of the ideas put forward by M.V. Lomonosov can rightfully be called genius, and the life of the great scientist is a feat in the name of science and enlightenment.
The first major Russian natural scientist, a vivid example of a “universal person”: encyclopedist, physicist and chemist, astronomer, instrument maker, geographer, metallurgist, geologist, poet, artist, historian. He is famous as the first chemist who gave physical chemistry a definition very close to the modern one and outlined an extensive program of physical and chemical research. His molecular-kinetic theory of heat in many ways anticipated the modern understanding of the structure of matter and many fundamental laws, including one of the principles of thermodynamics.
He is a founder of scientific navigation and physical chemistry. He discovered the presence of an atmosphere on Venus, laid the foundations of the science of glass, and played a fundamental role in the formation of the Russian literary language The large comparative material collected by Lomonosov from different languages, the theoretical considerations expressed by him made him comprehend the specific features of the Russian language, distinguishing it from other languages, clarify trends in the development of the Russian literary language.
These problems were solved in “Russian Grammar,” his main philological work.
Lomonosov is tThe author of the academic normative grammar of the Russian language, a reformer in the field of theory and practice of versification, the founder of comparative historical linguistics, and still he continues to influence the development of Russian linguistics.
The great scientist developed a project for Moscow University, which was later named in his honor – Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky is a Russian mathematician, one of the authors of non-Euclidean geometry, a figure in university education and public education. The famous English mathematician William Clifford called Lobachevsky the “Copernicus of geometry.” The new geometry developed by Lobachevsky does not include Euclidean geometry, however, Euclidean geometry can be obtained from it by passing to the limit (as the curvature of space tends to zero). The knowledge that Euclidean geometry had a viable alternative made a huge impression on the scientific world and gave impetus to other innovative ideas in mathematics and physics. In particular, Lobachevsky’s geometry had a decisive influence on the emergence of Riemannian geometry, Felix Klein’s Erlangen Program and the general theory of axiomatic systems. Lobachevsky was teaching at the Imperial Kazan University for 40 years, including 19 years as rector; his activity and skillful leadership made the university be one of the leading Russian educational institutions. According to N.P. Zagoskin, Lobachevsky was the “great builder” of Kazan University.
Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov
Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov is a Russian surgeon and anatomist, naturalist and teacher, professor, author of the first atlas of topographic anatomy, founder of Russian military field surgery, founder of the Russian school of anesthesia. Pirogov created several new branches of medicine, for example, topographic human anatomy and the science of tissue orientation. Military field surgery was founded by him in its modern form based on the experience of the Crimean War, including medical triage and a staged evacuation system. Pirogov created the Atlas of Sections, a book of enormous scientific value.
An outstanding scientist, citizen and patriot of Russia, Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov, out of his more than half a century of scientific and social activity, devoted less than five years to the educational field. But this was enough for his name to take an integral place among the largest Russian pedagogical thinkers and educators.
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev is a Russian scientist-encyclopedist: chemist, physical chemist, physicist, metrologist, economist, technologist, geologist, meteorologist, oil worker, teacher, aeronaut, instrument maker. Among his most famous discoveries there is the periodic law of chemical elements, one of the fundamental laws of the universe, integral to all natural science. He is the author of the classic work “Fundamentals of Chemistry”.
7 main areas of the scientist’s activity:
Periodic law, pedagogy, education
Organic chemistry, the study of limiting forms of compounds
Mixtures, oil technology and economics of the oil industry
Physics of liquids and gases, meteorology, aeronautics, environmental resistance, shipbuilding, development of the Far North
Standards, issues of metrology
Solid state chemistry, solid fuel and glass technology
Biology, medicinal chemistry, agrochemistry, agriculture. Being the brilliant father of the periodic table of elements, Mendeleev was a versatile scientist and public figure. Thus, he made a significant and invaluable contribution to oil activities. Thanks to Mendeleev, Russia was able not only to abandon the export of kerosene from America, but also to export petroleum products to Europe
D.I. Mendeleev was not only an outstanding scientist and encyclopedist, but also a talented practical teacher, successfully combining teaching with scientific activities. Mendeleev considered teaching to be one of his services to his homeland, to which he devoted more than 35 years of his life. He wrote about this in an unsent letter addressed to S. Yu. Witte. Volume XIII of his Collected Works contains reports, speeches, articles, and letters devoted to issues of public education and enlightenment. The main pedagogical idea of D.I. Mendeleev was the idea of lifelong learning.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is an outstanding Russian and Soviet scientist, physiologist, author of the science of higher nervous activity, founder of the largest Russian physiological school. Pavlov created the doctrine of the work of the main digestive glands and the activity of the digestive system as a whole, which is still the theoretical basis of physiology. The results of I. P. Pavlov’s research on the physiology of digestion are summarized in his book “Lectures on the work of the main digestive glands,” published in 1897. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is the Nobel Prize laureate in 1904 “for his work on the physiology of digestion.”
Pavlov created a new branch of physiological science – the physiology of higher nervous activity, on the basis of the phenomenon, which he discovered – the conditioned reflex.
He is known for dividing the entire set of physiological reflexes into conditioned and unconditioned, and also for studying the psychophysiology of temperament types and the properties of nervous systems that underlie behavioral individual differences. I. P. Pavlov’s contribution to science is enormous: he proved the physiological basis of the psyche (in experiments with conditioned reflexes); developed a doctrine of temperaments (based on the properties of the nervous system); classified people according to thinking, artistic and average types; had a huge influence on the objective, quantitatively measurable approach to the physiological processes of the body in behaviorism, reflexology, conditioned reflex therapy; introduced the concept of the second signal system (speech), through which (in words) one can influence the first signal system (sensations) for therapeutic and health purposes; he proved the influence of the cerebral cortex on the functioning of internal organs and the premises of psychosomatics); created the doctrine of experimental neuroses; scientifically substantiated the benefits of sleep therapy, also described the physiology of suggestion and hypnosis; developed and improved surgical methods for studying body functions.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky is a Russian and Soviet self-taught scientist who developed theoretical issues of astronautics, an esoteric thinker who dealt with philosophical problems of space exploration. He is considered to be the founder of modern astronautics. He substantiated the derivation of the jet propulsion equation and came to the conclusion about the need to use “rocket trains” – prototypes of multi-stage rockets. He is the author of works on aerodynamics, aeronautics and etc. He is a representative of Russian cosmism, member of the Russian Society of World Studies Lovers., author of science fiction works, supporter and propagandist of the ideas of space exploration. Tsiolkovsky proposed populating outer space using orbital stations, put forward the ideas of a space elevator and hovercraft. He believed that the development of life on one of the planets of the Universe would reach such power and perfection that this would make it possible to overcome the forces of gravity and spread life throughout the Universe. Many researchers, including Ya. Perelman, characterized Tsiolkovsky as a thinker who was significantly ahead of his time.
Alexander Stepanovich Popov
Alexander Stepanovich Popov is a Russian physicist and electrical engineer, the first Russian radio engineer, founder of a radio engineering scientific school, professor (1901), inventor in the field of radio communications. On April 25 (May 7), 1895, Popov demonstrated the device he had created “for showing rapid fluctuations in atmospheric electricity” (wireless telegraph) at a meeting of the physics department of the Russian Federal Chemical Society. This day is celebrated in Russia as Radio Day. A diagram and description of the device appeared in the journal RFKhO in January 1896. In the article “Device for detecting and recording electrical oscillations”, marked by Popov in December 1895, it is reported that in experiments on signaling range outdoors, a vertical wire 2.5 m long was connected to the device, and the transmitter was a Hertz vibrator with 40×40 cm square sheets. It also states the suitability of the device “both for lecture purposes and for recording electrical perturbations occurring in the atmosphere,” and expresses the hope that “the device, with its further improvement, can be applied to the transmission of signals over distances using fast electrical oscillations, as soon as a source of such oscillations with sufficient energy is found”
Some researchers believe that radiotelegraph was invented almost simultaneously by Popov and Marconi
Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov
Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov is a Soviet mathematician, one of the greatest mathematicians of the XX century. One of the founders of modern probability theory, he obtained fundamental results in topology, geometry, mathematical logic, classical mechanics, turbulence theory, algorithm complexity theory, information theory, function theory, trigonometric series theory, measure theory, function approximation theory, set theory, differential equations, theory of dynamical systems, functional analysis and in a number of other areas of mathematics and its applications.
The author of innovative works on philosophy, history, methodology and teaching mathematics, his work in statistical physics is known (in particular, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation). Professor of Moscow State University, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, President of Moscow Mathematical Society (MMS), Kolmogorov was also a full member of more than a dozen foreign academies. Yaroslavl is proud of Kolmogorov Street, and Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University named after. K.D. Ushinsky has been holding Kolmogorov readings for many years.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev is a Soviet scientist, designer of rocket and space systems, chairman of the Council of Chief Design Managers in the USSR (1946-1966), academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1958).
Sergei Korolev is one of the main founders of Soviet rocket and space technology, which ensured strategic parity and made the USSR an advanced rocket and space power, and one of the key figures in human space exploration, one of the founders of practical astronautics. In official documents of the USSR he was simply called “Chief Designer”. Under his leadership, the launches of the first artificial Earth satellite and the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin were organized and carried out.
The famous American journalist Tom Wolf wrote:“There was an aura of magic surrounding the Soviet program. The Soviets published virtually no figures, photographs, or diagrams. And there were no names. All that was known was that the Soviet program was headed by a mysterious figure known as the “Chief Designer.” Whenever the United States announced a large-scale space experiment, and the chief designer was the first to successfully carry it out.”
Korolev nurtured the idea of launching a man to the Moon back in the mid-1950s. He has priority in the practical start of work on manned flights to Mars. However, after the death of Sergei Pavlovich and several unsuccessful attempts to launch the N-1, the Soviet program for manned flight to the Moon and the Mars program were gradually curtailed.
Sergei Ivanovich Ozhegov
Sergei Ivanovich Ozhegov is one of the largest Russian linguists, the compiler of the famous “Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language” edited by Nikolai Ushakov.
Ozhegov was seriously engaged in research into the history of the Russian literary language, historical grammar, lexicology, orthoepy (pronunciation norms) of the language of Russian writers, spelling and phraseology. The main object of his scientific works was colloquial Russian speech in all its manifestations.
In addition to scientific work, he also worked at the State Institute of Art History, Herzen Pedagogical Institute.
Even on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, Ozhegov began his work on the “Dictionary of the Russian Language” and worked on the dictionary almost until the end of his life: he made improvements and improved its structure.
Currently, the “Dictionary of the Russian Language” has a special place among other explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language. This is the only relatively complete one-volume dictionary (80,000 words and expressions), which consistently, from edition to edition, reflects changes in Russian literary vocabulary.
Being a deep academic specialist and carrying out extensive teaching activities (he worked at Moscow State University for many years), Sergei Ivanovich Ozhegov was not an armchair scientist and eagerly responded with his characteristic kind irony to those changes in language that were entering the vocabulary of the average person in the space era.
He was loyal to the “verbal pranks” of young people, listened to them, knew well and could appreciate the literary jargon used in special cases. An example of this is the card file of Russian obscenities compiled by him together with another famous scientist, Alexander Reformatsky – not a collection of obscene expressions in “dictionaries”, but a scientifically based and artistically designed study of the sociology of linguistic use of the urban population – something that is so popular and relevant at present.
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